The Grand Dorsal sounds like some part of a large dolphin, but it has nothing to do with swimming mammals. To learn a little more about it, you need to consult an atlas. Go to west-central Tunisia, just a stone’s throw (or an artillery shell’s throw, in this case) from the country of Algeria, and find the city of Kasserine. Just to the west is the Grand Dorsal, and right there is a break in the Dorsal’s spine, forming the Kasserine Pass.
This two-mile gap was the scene of one of the more famous engagements fought in North Africa during the Second World War. The Battle of Kasserine Pass was the first real meeting between the vaunted Panzers led by Erwin Rommel and U.S. forces. And to say the battle (actually a series of battles), which began on February 19, 1943, didn’t go well for the Americans would be an understatement.
In fact, in terms of territory lost, the 85-mile retreat forced on the men over the course of the week-long battle was the worst shellacking of the war. Harry Butcher, a former CBS executive turned naval aide and confidant to General Eisenhower, wrote, “The proud and cocky Americans today stand humiliated by one of the greatest defeats in our history.” Eisenhower himself would say (to General Marshall), “Our people from the highest to the very lowest have learned that this is not a child’s game.”
It was a tough defeat. Casualties exceeded 20% of men involved, a staggering total. Hundreds of tanks, artillery pieces, and trucks with the American star littered the area as burned out hulks, while on the German ledger, losses were less than a 1,000 casualties (including just 200 dead).
But even in defeat such as this, there was hope. The loss was tactical, not strategic. For all their military prowess, Rommel’s forces had not reached (nor captured) any Allied supply depots. Allied forces, particularly the British First Army, had not been forced back into Algeria. And in general, Allied offensive capabilities had not been stopped, which meant that once America’s superior war production replaced the losses, the Axis would have to fight all over again.
And at the top, there was Eisenhower, who admitted his mistakes, learned from them, and then made the necessary adjustments (and personnel changes) to hopefully avoid them in the future. The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a definite loss for the Americans, still getting their feet wet in war against a much more experienced foe.
But the takeaways, like many of the other engagements in North Africa, served to turn relatively green troops into a fighting machine that would, within months, stand victorious on the shores of Tunis.